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doc:crazyflie:bootloader:protocol

Crazyflie bootloader architecture and protocol

Architecture

The Bootloader sits at the beginning of the flash memory 1) and handles the memory in pages:

 +------------+ <- flashPages
 |            |
 |            |
 |            |
 |            |
 |            |
 |            |
 |            |
 |            |
 |            |
 |            |
 |  Firmware  |
 |            |
 |            |
 +------------+ <- flashStart
 | Bootloader |
 +------------+ <- Page 0

The size of the pages, the values flashStart and flashPages are comunicated by the protocol. For simplicity of the bootloader implementation this architecture is exposed to the procol

   +---------------+                      +--------------+
   | Buffer page n |                      | Flash Page m |
   +---------------+                      +--------------+
   \               \                      \              \
   \               \                      \              \
   +---------------+      +-------+       +--------------+
   | Buffer page 0 |----->| Flash |------>| Flash Page 0 |
   +---------------+      +-------+       +--------------+
           ^                  ^                  |        
           |                  |                  |
           v                  |                  v
   +------------------------------------------------------+
   |                   Bootloader control                 |
   +------------------------------------------------------+

The procedure to flash is then to send the data to the buffer, and then order the bootloader to flash the buffer(s) in flash. All parameters like page size, number of flash page, number of buffer pages, are accessible via the protocol so that it is possible to change these physical values without changing the bootloader client.

Protocol

All packets sent to the bootloader starts with “0xFF Target_number”, this kind of packets are called 'NULL Parcket' by CRTP and are ignored by the Crazyflie firmware. The target number has been introduced with Crazyflie 2 as it contains 2 bootloader. The mapping is as follow:

Board Target_number MCU Protocol version
Crazyflie 1 0xFF STM32F103 0x00
Crazyflie 2 0xFF STM32F405 0x10
0xFE nRF51822 0x10

The high nibble of the version aims at describing the board if board-specific change is required to the protocol (ie. GET_MAPPING that is specific to stm32f405).

All packets have the following format:

In the rest of this page commands and data are described.

Commands summary

Command Name Note
0x10 GET_INFO
0x11 SET_ADDRESS Only implemented on Crazyflie version 0x00
0x12 GET_MAPPING Only implemented in version 0x10 target 0xFF
0x14 LOAD_BUFFER
0x15 READ_BUFFER
0x18 WRITE_FLASH
0x19 FLASH_STATUS
0x1C READ_FLASH
0xFF RESET_INIT Only implemented in version 0x10 target 0xFE
0xF0 RESET Only implemented in version 0x10 target 0xFE
0x01 ALLOFF Only implemented in version 0x10 target 0xFE
0x02 SYSOFF Only implemented in version 0x10 target 0xFE
0x03 SYSON Only implemented in version 0x10 target 0xFE
0x04 GETVBAT Only implemented in version 0x10 target 0xFE

GET_INFO

Byte Request fields Content
0 GET_INFO 0x10
Byte Answer fields Content
0 GET_INFO 0x10
1-2 pageSize Size in byte of flash and buffer page
3-4 nBuffPage Number of ram buffer page available
5-6 nFlashPage Total number of flash page
7-8 flashStart Start flash page of the firmware
9-21 cpuId Legacy 12Bytes CPUID, shall be ignored
22 version Version of the protocol

This exchange requests the bootloader info. The content of this packet contains all information required to program the flash.

SET_ADDRESS

Byte Request fields Content
0 SET_ADDRESS 0x11
1-6 address 5 Bytes radio (ESB) address

Sets the radio address. This allows to make sure no other computer will interfere with the flash process. It is not mandatory.

GET_MAPPING

Byte Request fields Content
0 GET_MAPPING 0x12
Byte Answer fields Content
0 GET_MAPPING 0x12
1-.. mapping Erase page mapping of the flash, up to 27 bytes

For all supported MCU except the STM32F405 when flashing one page the page is erased and then written with the new data.

The STM32F405 though has a very large flash memory (1M) and fairly large erase sector that have a different size. On this chip the bootloader is setup with 1024Bytes pages and when a page happens to be the first of a sector the full sector is erased. This command allows to request the size of the sectors.

The mapping field is encoded as a sequence of [Number of sector, Size of sector in page]. For example the STM32F405 has a mapping of [4, 16, 1, 64, 7, 128] because it contains 4 sector of 16KB, 1 of 64KB and 7 of 128KB. If this command where implemented in the STM32F103 the mapping would be [128, 1].

LOAD_BUFFER

Byte Request fields Content
0 LOAD_BUFFER 0x14
1-2 page Buffer page to load into
3-4 Address Address in the buffer page to load from
5-31 data Data to load

READ_BUFFER

Byte Request fields Content
0 READ_BUFFER 0x15
1-2 page Buffer page to read
3-4 Address Address in the buffer page to read from
Byte Answer fields Content
0 READ_BUFFER 0x15
1-2 page Buffer page read
3-4 Address Address in the buffer page read from
5-31 data Data read

WRITE_FLASH

Byte Request fields Content
0 WRITE_BUFFER 0x18
1-2 bufferPage Buffer page source
3-4 flashPage Flash page destination
5-6 nPages Number of page to program
Byte Answer fields Content
0 WRITE_FLASH 0x18
1 done At 0 if the operation failed, not 0 otherwise
2 Error 0 if no error, otherwise contains error code

The error code can be:

Code Meaning
0 No error
1 Addresses are outside of authorized boundaries
2 Flash erase failed
3 Flash programming failed

FLASH_STATUS

Byte Request fields Content
0 FLASH_STATUS 0x19
Byte Answer fields Content
0 FLASH_STATUS 0x19
1 done At 0 if the operation failed, not 0 otherwise
2 Error 0 if no error, otherwise contains error code

This message aims at checking the latest flash operation in case where the WRITE_FLASH answer would be lost. The error code follows the same format as for WRITE_FLASH.

READ_FLASH

Byte Request fields Content
0 READ_FLASH 0x1C
1-2 page Flash page to read
3-4 Address Address in the flash page to read from
Byte Answer fields Content
0 READ_FLASH 0x1C
1-2 page Flash page read
3-4 Address Address in the flash page read from
5-31 data Data read

RESET_INIT

Prepare to reset (no additional data fields). The result will be the original request.

RESET

Reset (no additional data fields). No result will be sent.

ALLOFF

Turn everything off as if the power button would have been pressed (i.e. STM32 and radio). The CF won't be able to wake-up unless the power button is pressed. No result will be sent.

SYSOFF

Turn the STM32 off, but keep the NRF51 with radio awake. The CF can be woken up by: sending reset, pressing the power button, or sendind SYSON. No result will be sent.

SYSON

Turn the STM32 on. No result will be sent.

GETVBAT

Byte Answer fields Content
0-3 vbat floating point value containing the current battery voltage in volts

Check battery status (works even if the STM32 is turned off).

1)
Except for the NRF51 bootloader that is at the end, then it just report a shorter FLASH size to guarantee that the bootloader is never erased
doc/crazyflie/bootloader/protocol.txt · Last modified: 2017-02-01 19:01 by whoenig