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misc:hacks:hackrf

Sniffing nRF24 with GNU Radio and HackRF

Thanks to a software from Cyber Explorer it is possible to sniff the NRF24 radio packet using an SDR radio.

Though the original method is using rtl-sdr with the rtl-fm program. This page aims at documenting how to setup an NRF sniffer with the HackRFBlue (which is fully compatible with HackRF One).

The procedure should be very similar with any GnuRadio-compatible SDR receiver.

Setting-up hackRF

To setup HackRF on Ubuntu the following packages needs to be installed:

sudo apt-get install gnuradio gr-osmosdr hackrf gqrx

Then you can verify that it works with:

$ hackrf_info 
Found HackRF board.
Board ID Number: 2 (HackRF One)
Firmware Version: 2014.08.1
Part ID Number: 0xa000cb3c 0x005c4746
Serial Number: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x321864c8 0x3852321d
$

On my Ubuntu I need to remove a hackrf module for it to actually work:

$ hackrf_info
hackrf_open() failed: HACKRF_ERROR_LIBUSB (-1000)
$ sudo rmmod hackrf
$ hackrf_info      
Found HackRF board.
Board ID Number: 2 (HackRF One)
Firmware Version: 2014.08.1
Part ID Number: 0xa000cb3c 0x005c4746
Serial Number: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x321864c8 0x3852321d
$ 

To test that it is working well you can run gqrx:

Sniffing

Clone and make the NRF24-BTLE-Decoder program from Github:

$ git clone https://github.com/omriiluz/NRF24-BTLE-Decoder
Cloning into 'NRF24-BTLE-Decoder'...
remote: Counting objects: 25, done.
remote: Total 25 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 25
Unpacking objects: 100% (25/25), done.
Checking connectivity... done.
$ cd NRF24-BTLE-Decoder 
NRF24-BTLE-Decoder $ make
gcc -std=gnu99 -Wall -O3 -o ./bin/nrf24-btle-decoder nrf24-btle-decoder.c
nrf24-btle-decoder.c: In function ‘main’:
nrf24-btle-decoder.c:370:4: warning: implicit declaration of function ‘strcmp’ [-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
    if (strcmp("nrf", optarg) == 0) decode_type = 1;
    ^
NRF24-BTLE-Decoder $ cd bin 
bin $ ls
nrf24-btle-decoder
bin $

The nrf24-btle-decoder software is designed to get sample at 2Msps via the standard input. To get data from gnuradio instead we create a fifo and cat this fifo in nrf24-btle-decoder:

bin $ mkfifo /tmp/fifo
bin $  cat /tmp/fifo | ./nrf24-btle-decoder -d 1

The GNUradio companion receiver is a simple quadrature demodulator:

The source file can be downloaded there: nrf24_demod.grc.zip

This GNU Radio program will write the demodulated samples in the fifo, it will then be read by 'cat' and be piped into the decoder. When connected to a Crazyflie the output is:

bin $  cat /tmp/fifo | ./nrf24-btle-decoder -d 1
nrf24-btle-decoder, decode NRF24L01+ and Bluetooth Low Energy packets using RTL-SDR v0.4

1433238474.737783 NRF24 Packet start sample 20935, Threshold:5240, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:0, pid:0, no_ack:0, CRC:0xD1E4 data:
1433238474.758950 NRF24 Packet start sample 37532, Threshold:5213, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:15, pid:1, no_ack:0, CRC:0xFE8C data:3C 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 80 00 00 00 00 00 00 
1433238474.778575 NRF24 Packet start sample 94927, Threshold:5123, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:1, pid:2, no_ack:0, CRC:0x64C1 data:FF 
1433238474.778681 NRF24 Packet start sample 95320, Threshold:6176, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:0, pid:0, no_ack:0, CRC:0xD1E4 data:
1433238474.819749 NRF24 Packet start sample 186219, Threshold:5007, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:15, pid:1, no_ack:0, CRC:0xFE8C data:3C 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 80 00 00 00 00 00 00 
1433238474.853860 NRF24 Packet start sample 249975, Threshold:5108, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:15, pid:0, no_ack:0, CRC:0xBEE5 data:3C 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 80 00 00 00 00 00 00 
1433238474.879752 NRF24 Packet start sample 294095, Threshold:5076, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:1, pid:3, no_ack:0, CRC:0x02A3 data:FF 
1433238474.881214 NRF24 Packet start sample 298150, Threshold:4770, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:1, pid:1, no_ack:0, CRC:0xCE67 data:FF 
1433238474.882156 NRF24 Packet start sample 301571, Threshold:5302, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:1, pid:2, no_ack:0, CRC:0x64C1 data:FF 
1433238474.896965 NRF24 Packet start sample 321818, Threshold:5265, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:1, pid:0, no_ack:0, CRC:0xA805 data:FF 
1433238474.898889 NRF24 Packet start sample 325754, Threshold:5414, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:1, pid:2, no_ack:0, CRC:0x64C1 data:FF 
1433238474.943326 NRF24 Packet start sample 403294, Threshold:5538, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:15, pid:3, no_ack:0, CRC:0x7E5E data:3C 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 80 00 00 00 00 00 00 
1433238474.966901 NRF24 Packet start sample 504654, Threshold:4824, Address: 0xE7E7E7E7E7 length:1, pid:3, no_ack:0, CRC:0x02A3 data:FF 

To stop sniffing, stop the GNURadio program and to re-run, run the decoder and then the gnuradio program.

misc/hacks/hackrf.txt · Last modified: 2015-07-15 16:31 (external edit)